1. Specifications: a typical absolute specification of a filter -- stopband, passband, transition band, corresponding tolerance (ripple)

dB scale = -20 log10 | H(ejw) | / | H(ejw) |max

2. Approximations: use various concepts and mathematics that approximated the given set of specifications.

3. Implementation: The product of above step is a filter description in the form of either a difference equation, or a system function H(z), or an impluse response h(n). From this we implement te filter in hardware or through software on a computer with different filter structures.

## Wednesday, July 19, 2006

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